Posts Tagged ‘prostate cancer’

Is Imaging Effective To Detect Prostate Ca.

Wednesday, January 27th, 2016

Logos 005 A new study published online ahead of print copies in the journal Urology concluded that  a new method to image the prostate seems to be much better at detecting prostate cancer than any other test–radiographical, biopsy, or blood. In some cases, imaging in the study found more cancerous lesions than pathologists found when they examined prostate glands after removal.

In the study 25 men who opted to have a radical prostatectomy agreed to the new imaging test before the surgery. The results of the test and the pathologist examination were then compared.  The imaging test involved a novel biomarker that latches on to cancerous cells within the prostate. This agent is given intravenously to subjects before a PET CT scan. Currently used tests are inexact, require an invasive biopsy, and may miss up to 66% of the cancers. One of the researchers said “It is hard to believe that hundreds of thousands of patients in the U.S. have been relying on biopsies to dictate their treatment, when two-thirds of these tests do not accurately reflect what is happening inside the prostate.”

The imaging agent, 64Cu-TP3805, that attaches onto receptors, VPAC1, that appear en mass when a cell morphs into cancer. The VPAC1 receptors cover the outside of the cancer cell in order to promote growth, The imaging agent consists of TP3805 which latches on to VPAC1 receptors, and Cu-64, a radiation emitting copper peptide, which is hooked onto TP3805. The PET imaging process captures the places on the prostate where 64Cu-TP3805 have landed on the cancerous cells. This agent has a short-life and decays quickly and has a lower whole body radiation risk than a CT scan.

In this study the test identified 105 of 107 cancerous lesions found during pathological exams pf the removed prostate (97% agreement). In addition, the test also identified nine additional leisions the pathological exam missed. Positive and negative lymph nodes were also correctly identified and in addition, some cases of benign prostatic hyperplasia and cysts. The team have also used the testing on other types of cancer. Results of this study exceeded the researchers goal of finding 80% of the cancers found pathologically by the test.

Can Therapy for Prostate Cancer Increase Risk of Alzheimers

Wednesday, December 9th, 2015

Logos 005A new study published in the Journal of Clinical Oncology concluded  that men taking androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for prostate cancer were almost twice as likely to be diagnosed with Alzheimer’s later in life than those who did not use the therapy based on the analysis of medical records. In addition, men with the longest duration of using ADT were even more likely to suffer Alzheimer’s. Researchers said this does not prove that ADT increases the risk of Alzheimer’s but point to that possibility and are consistent to other evidence that low levels of testosterone may weaken the brain of aging individuals resistance to Alzheimer’s.  The researchers said “We wanted to contribute to the discussion regarding the relative risk and benefits of ADT. and no one had yet looked at the association between ADT and alzheimer’s disease.” “Based on the results of our study, an increase risk of Alzheimer’s disease is a potential adverse effect of ADT, but further research is needed befre considering changes to clinical practice.”

For this study, the researchers evaluated large sets of medical records from two hospitals on the east and west coasts.  In total, there were about 5 million patients. of whom 16,888 had a diagnoses of prostate cancer and met the other criteria of the study. Of the 16,888 prostate cancer patients about 2,400 had received ADT and had the necessary follow up records. This group was compared with a control group of prostate cancer patients who did not receive ADT that were matched by age and other factors.

Using two different statistical analysis methods, the researchers  showed that the ADT group , xompared to the control group, had significantly more Alzheimer’s diagnoses in later years and showed that the ADT group were about 88 percent more likely to develop Alzheimer’s during the follow up period. Further studies are planned  to determine whether ADT does increase Alzheimer’s risk using data from large cancer registries.

Can Yoga Lessen the Side Effects of Traditional Cancer Treatment?

Wednesday, November 25th, 2015

logo1267406_mdA new study presented at the Society of Integrative Oncology’ International Conference in Boston concluded that yoga may benefit men who are undergoing radiation therapy for prostate cancer. Side effects often experience include fatigue, erectile dysfunction, urinary incontinence and a decline in quality of life.

In this small study of 27 men who attended 75 minute yoga classes twice a week expressed no decline in quality of life or experienced any side effects through the radiation therapy. Researchers said “Data have consistently shown declines in these important measures among prostate cancer patients undergoing cancer therapy without any structured fitness interventions so the stable sc0res seen with our yoga program are really good news.” The researchers believe the yoga may help the fatigue and may strengthen the pelvic muscles and increase blood flow that may improve erectile dysfunction and urinary incontinence. They also thought the group participation might provide a psychosocial benefit. Previous studies have shown that yoga was beneficial for breast cancer patients.

Better Assessment of Treatment Options for Prostate Cancer Patients.

Tuesday, November 24th, 2015

Better Assessment of Treatment Options for Prostate Cancer Patients

Prostate Cancer Treatment Options: Research reported in JAMA Oncology reported that regardless of aggressiveness of the tumor, risk to the patient, and overall patient prognosis, radiation therapy was the most common treatment for men with prostate cancer. This finding was based upon an analysis of claims data of over 37,000 patients over a three year period between 2004 and 2007. Radiation therapy was used for 58 percent of the patients. followed by 19 percent for radical prostatectomy (a surgical procedure to remove the prostate) and 10 percent for oi=ther treatments including watchful waiting and active surveillance. Researcher said patients must consider recommendations of the physician, the aggressiveness of their cancer, whether active surveillance is preferred over treatment, and the health care costs. They found that the main predictor of a man receiving radiation was a referral to a radiation oncologist. On the other hand, urologists and surgeons significantly recommended surgery only after incorporating the patients age, health and the aggressiveness of the cancer.

Researchers said “Doctors and patients view radiation as safe. There’s  no anesthesia or hospitalization, the patient comes in for 15 or 20 minutes for the daily radiation treatment, it’s localized to a specific area, then they get to go home.  They often don’t notice any immediate effects upfront.” But by two years after  treatment, men often begin to suffer from side effects including urinary incontinence and leakage of urine, anal leakage and bowel dysfunction, erectile dysfunction, blood in the urine, and radiation cystitis.  These may vary from mid to serious.

Improved Diagnostic Test for Prostate Cancer.

Wednesday, May 20th, 2015

Improved Diagnostic Test for Prostate Cancer

A new study reported in Science digest concluded that a new urine-based test for prostate cancer improves detection when compared to prostate serum antigen (PSA) levels. This test also improved detection of the more aggressive forms of prostate cancer. The new test is called Mi-Prostate Score (MiPS)  and combines the PSA with two prostate cancer markers-T2:ERG and PCA3 both of which can be detected through a urine test.  The test was indicated because about 50% of all men having biopsies will not have cancer.

In the study 1,977 men having the prostate biopsy because of elevated PSA levels were evaluated. Researchers used urine samples to conduct MiPS testing and compared with various combinations of PSA, PBA3, T2:ERG and other PSA-based calculations. The testing evaluated how well individual biomarkers and combinations predicted the likelihood of cancer and high-risk cancer.  Although there is no one cut-off score  for a positive result, they found that using one MiPS cutoff score to decide whether or not to biopsy patients would reduce the number of biopsies by one-third, while delaying the diagnosis of only about 1 percent of high-risk prostate cancers. More research is ongoing.

One dollar blood test using gold nanoparticles more effective than PSA test in prostate cancer detection.

Wednesday, April 8th, 2015

Prostate Cancer Detection with gold nanoparticles

A new study published in ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces concluded that a test using gold nanoparticles to detect early stage prostate cancer costs less that $1, has results in minutes and is more accurate than standard PSA screening. The gold particles attract cancer bio markers. The researchers test detects the immune response that the body produces in response to the development of a tumor. The gold nanoparticles are about 10,000 times smaller than a freckle.  When blood from a finger prick is mixed with the gold nanoparticles, certain cancer biomarkers cling to the surface of the tiny particles. increases their size and causes them to clump together. In the test they are able to measure the size of the particles by analyzing the light thrown off and the size reveals whether or not the patient has prostate cancer and how advanced it may be. Researchers said “Whats different and unique about our technique is it’s a very simple process, and the material required for the test is less than $1. And because it’s low cost, we’re hopinf most people can have this test in their doctor’s office. If we can catch this cancer in its early stages, the impact is going to be big.”

Evaluation of the test determined at 90 to 95 percent that it is not false positive, and with 50% confidence that it is not false negative which is higher than the PSA confidence in false positive at 20%. More research is planned with the eventual goal of hqving a simple, cheap test for various cancer types.

Does Fitness Level Influence Risk of Cancer and Death in Men?

Wednesday, April 1st, 2015

Does Fitness Level Influence Risk of Cancer and Death in Men

A new study published in the online JAMA Oncology concluded that men with a high fitness level in midlife seem to be at lower risk for lung and colorectal cancer, but not prostate cancer. In addition, a higher fitness level may also predict aa lower risk of death if they are diagnosed with cancer when they are older.

The purpose of the study was to look at the association between midlife cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and the incidence of cancer and survival at age 65 or older. The study included 13,949 men who had a baseline fitness exam where CRF was measured in a treadmill test between 1971 and 2009. Lung cancer, prostate and colorectal cancers were assessed on this group using medicare data between 1999 and 2009. during an average surveillance period of 6.5 years for the men, 1310 developed prostate cancer, 200 lung cancer, and 181 developed colorectal cancer.  Results showed that high CRF in midlife was associated with a 55 percent lower risk of lung cancer, and a 44 percent lower risk of colorectal cancer compared to men with low CRF. However, this association was not seen between high CRF and lower prostate cancer risk. Researchers also found that high CRF in midlife was associated with a 32 percent lower risk of cancer death among men who developed lung, colorectal or prostate cancer at age 65 compared with men who had alow CRF.  In addition, high CRF in midlife was associated with a 68 percent reduction in cardiovascular disease death (CVD) compared with low CRF among men who developed cancer.  Further research is needed to determine specific levels of CRF necessary toi prevent site specific cancer.

A common Prostate Cancer Treatment Reduces Survival in Older Men.

Wednesday, December 10th, 2014

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A new study published in European Urology concluded that a common prostate cancer therapy known as ADT should not be used in men whose cancer has not spread beyond the prostate  Researchers found that the therapy exposed them to more adverse side effects and was associat3d with increased risk of death and deprived the men of the opportunity for a cure by other methods.

ADT or androgen deprivation therapy involves injecting or implanting medication that disrupts the bodies ability to make testosterone and has significant side effects such as heart disease, diabetes, increased weight gain and impotence and potential earlier death.

According to the authors  the treatment has become a mainstay for prostate cancer that has metastasized or spread beyond the prostate gland. and others used it with radiation therapy. However, the authors say there is no evidence for use of ADT for low risk or localized prostate cancer despite its use in these patients. This misuse of ADT therapy lead to changes in Medicare reimbursement policires for ADT in 2004 with a resulting 40 per cent drop in reimkbursement and a reduction in inappraopriate uise of ADT from 38.7 percent to 25.7 percentfor newly diagnosed localized prostate cancers. The current study  study ” hypothesuized that adverse effects of ADT might be more pronounced in men with longer life expectencies since they would likely be treated with ADT for a longer period and be exposed to more treatment-related side effects. ” Of a  population of 46,376 men diagnosed with localized prostate cancer who did not undergo radical prostectomy or radiation therapy for prostate cancer diagnosed between 1992 and 2009 thirty eight and a half percent were treated with ADT and the hypothesis was confirmed. Findings showed that primary ADT was associated with decreased survival in men with localized prostate cancer relative to men who received noa ctive treatment. Thus, ADT should not be used as a primary treatment for men with prosatate cancer that has not spread beyond the prostate or men with moderate or high disease undergoing radiation therapy.

New Diagnostic Test for Prostate Cancer.

Friday, October 31st, 2014

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After 30 years without progress in screening methods a new screening test has been identified for detecting prostate cancer. The  only place in the southeast part of the United States that offers the new technique–the MRI-US image fusion technique-is the University of Alabama in Birmingham. The researchers say ” We are utilizing prostate MRI and fusing it with real time ultrasound for image-guided prostate biopsies;  this can detect prostate cancer with high accuracy, and it accurately targets lesions of concern defined by MRI. ” ” This improves overall detection compared to standard biopsies and, more importantly, has the potential to give clinicians and patients a more accurate picture of their true disease burden by allowing improvements in staging.” The new technique allows direct tissue sampling of suspicious areas seen on MRI as opposed to the traditional method of random, systematically sampling that is essentially performed blind in different regions of the prostate.

Researchers say studies show the technique increases the overall cancer detection rate, increases the high risk detection rate, and improves staging for patients who are considering active surveillance where the doctor monitor low risk prostate cancer for changes.  the technique is a clinical based  procedure that can be performed under local anesthesia and the patient’s experience of this new biopsy compared to previous biopsy without MRI guidance is the same but with more accurate outcomes based on the targeted approach. The procedure has been offered for the past year at the U of Alabama.

 

 

 

Prostate Cancer, Inflammation, and Vitamin D.

Wednesday, October 29th, 2014

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A new study published in the journal Prostate concluded that inflammation may be the link between Vitamin D and prostate cancer. Specifically the study demonstrated that the gene GDF-15, known to be upregulated by Vitamin D, is missing in samples of human prostate cancer driven by inflammation.  The researchers wanted to determine what genes Vitamin D is turning off in prostate cancer because it was known that puting vitamin D on prostate cancer cells inhibits their growth but has not been declared an anticancer agent.

The researchers said ” We thought there might be high levels of GDF-15 in normal tissue and low in prostate cancer, but we found that in a large cohort of human prostate tissue samples, expression of GDF-15 did not track with either normal or cancerous prostate tissue.” They then discovered that GDF-15 was uniformly low in samples of prostate tissue containing inflammation.  They said “Inflammation is thought to drive many cancers including prostate, gastric and colon. Therefore, GDF-15 may be a good thing in keeping prostate tissue healthy–it suppresses inflammation, which is a bad actor potentially driving prostate cancer.” They also found that the gene GDF-15 supresses inflammation by inhibiting another target, NFkB that has been shown to promiote inflammation and contribute to tumor formation in previous studies. Research is ongoing.