Posts Tagged ‘smoking cessation’

Are E-Cigarettes Associated with Successful Attempts to Quit Smoking?

Wednesday, September 21st, 2016

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A study reported in the British Medical Journal concluded that  the use of e-cigarettes in England has been associated with a higher rate of successful attempts to quit smoking.  Statistics showed that in 2015 an additional estimated 18,000 long term smokers in England may have quit as a result of e-cigarettes.  Researchers concluded “although these numbers are relatively small, they are clinically significant because of the huge health gains from stopping smoking.” For example, they said a 40 year old smoker who quit permanently could extend her/his life by 9 years compared to one who continued to smoke. They also say that their findings “conflict with the hypothesis that an increase in populations use of e-cigarettes undermine quitting in general.” They concludced that more research was needed.

NB: It should be mentioned that some research has found that e-cagarettes are harmful to health.

Are E-cigarettes Effective for Smoking Cessation?

Friday, May 22nd, 2015

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A new study presented at the 2015 American Thoracic  Society International Conference concluded that there is little evidence that electronic cigarettes are effective for long-term smoking cessation. Researchers said “While e-cigarettes have been shown to significantly improve abstinence at 1 month compared with placebo, no such evidence is available supporting their effectiveness for longer periods.” “Until such data are available, there are a number of other smoking cessation aids available that have a more robust evidence base supporting their efficacy and safety.”

These conclusions were based upon a mega analysis of four studies of the efficacy and safety of e-cigarettes for promoting smoking cessation in 1011 patients and an additional 18 studies of the safety of e-cigarettes reporting adverse effects that occurred in 1212 patients.  At 1 month as previously noted, e-cigarettes significantly improved the prevalence of abstinence among study subjects, but this effect was absent at 3 and 6 month follow ups. Adverse effects of e-cigarettes noted included dry cough, throat irritation, and shortness of breath,. The researchers concluded “Although e-cigarettes are widely promoted and used as a smoking cessation tool, we found no data supporting their long term efficacy and safety.” “Given the potential health risks of using these unproven and unregulated devices, individuals seeking help with smoking cessation should consider other more well-established options until more research is performed.”

Can Lifestyle Changes Prevent Pancreatic Cancer?

Friday, July 11th, 2014

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CancerResearchuk.org report that nearly 40% of pancreatic cancers could be avoided in the UK through maintaining a healthy weight and not smoking because some pancreatic cancer are related to these factors. Survival for the disease is low and there are few treatment options according to the authors. “At the same time it’s important to remember that people can take steps to reduce their risk of developing pancreatic and other cancers, by not smoking and by keeping a healthy weight especially if you are prone to too much around your middle. ” The organization plans to more than double the funding for this disease to affect the outcome. More information is available at:                                                        http://www.cancerresearchuk.org/pancreaticcancer

Are Graphic Warnings on Cigarettes Effective?

Friday, January 25th, 2013

logo1267406_mdA new study published in the journal PLOS ONE concluded that hard hitting graphic tobacco warnings may help smokers of diverse backgrounds who are struggling to quit. These are bold pictorial cigarette warning labels that visually depict the health consequences of smoking.

This is one of the first studies to evaluate the effectiveness of pictorial warning labels versus text-only labels across racial/ethnic and socioeconomic groups. In the study, the reaction to cigarette warning labels for over 3,300 smokers were examined. Results showed that hard hitting, pictorial graphic warnings are more effective than text-only versions, with smokers indicating the labels are more impactful, credible, and have a greater effect on one’s intent to quit smoking.  In addition, the stronger impact of pictorial warnings was similar across vulnerable populations, with consistent reactions across diverse populations.  The author said “The implementation of graphic warning labels appear to be one of the few tobacco control policies that have the potential to reduce communication inequalities accross groups.”

Will Smoking Cessation Reduce Mortality At An Older Age?

Friday, June 22nd, 2012

A report in the June 11 issue of the  Archives of Internal Medicine concluded that smoking is linked to increased mortality in older patients and smoking cessation is associated with reduced mortality in this population. Researchers said “We provide a thorough review and mega-analysis of studies assessing the impact of smoking on all-cause mortality in people 60 years and older, paying particular attention to the strength of the association by age, the impact of smoking cessation at older age, and factors that might specifically affect results of epidemiological studies on the impact of smoking in an older population.”

Seventeen studies from seven countries were selected that were published between 1987 and 2011. Follow up time in the studies ranged from 3 to 50 years and the size of study populations ranged from 863 to 877,243.  The researchers found an 83% increased relative mortality for current smokers and a 34% increased relative mortality for former smokers compared to those who never smoked. The authors said “In this review and mega-analysis on the association of smoking and an all-cause mortality at older age, current and former smokers showed an approximately 2-fold and 1.3 -fold risk for mortality, respectively.” “This review and mega-analysis demonstrates that the relative risk for death notably decreases with time since smoking cessation even in older age.”

Will Eating More Fruit and Vegetables Assist in Smoking Cessation?

Wednesday, June 13th, 2012

A new study published in the journal Nicotine and Tobacco Research concluded  that eating more fruit and vegetables may help one quit smoking and stay tobacco-free longer. Researchers surveyed 1,000 smokers ages 25 and older from around the United States using random-digit dialing telephone interviews. A follow up interview was carried out 14 months later to determine if they had abstained from tobacco use the preceding month. The researchers had previously determined smokers who abstinened from cigarettes for less than 6 months consumed more fruit and vegetables than those still smoking.  What they did not know was whether recent quitters increased their consumption of fruit and vegetables or if those eating more fruit and vegetables were more likely to quit smoking.

In this study they found that smokers who consumed the most fruit and vegetables were three times more likely to be tobacco-free for at least 30 days at follow-up 14 months later than those who ate the least amount of fruit and vegetables.  Adjusting for variables of age, gender, race/ethnicity, education, household income, and health orientation did not influence the findings.

They also found that those eating the highest amount of fruit and vegetables smoked fewer cigarettes daily, waiter longer to smoke their first cigarette of the day, and scored lower on the common test for nicotine dependence. Researchers said ” It’s possible that an improved diet could be an important item to be added to the list of measures to help smokers quit.”

Does Anti-tobacco Advertising on Television Help Reduce Adult Smoking?

Wednesday, April 25th, 2012

It is know that adults and youth are exposed to anti-smoking advertising on television but little is know about  about which  ones  or if any are effective.  A new study evaluates the relationship between adults’ smoking behavior and their exposure to advertising sponsored by a variety of sources including states; private foundations, tobacco companies, and pharmaceutical companies marketing smoking-cessation products.

In the study published in the American Journal of Public Health researchers evaluated exposure to smoking related advertising using Nielsen ratings data for the top 75 U.S. media markets between 1999 and 2007 and combined the data with individual smoking data and state tobacco-control-policy data. Variables such as smoking status, intentions to quit, attempts to quit in the past year, and average daily cigarette consumption were included.

Data showed  that markets with higher exposure to state-sponsored media campaigns had less smoking  and higher intentions to quit.   Those with higher exposure to state-sponsored, private organization advertising, and pharmaceutical adverting was associated with less smoking but higher exposure to tobacco industry advertising was associated with more smoking. In addition, it was found that adults who were in areas with more ads for pharmaceutical cessation products were less likely to attempt to quit.  The author said “Since we looked at the total amount of exposure to anti-smoking campaigns–and the campaigns are very different–our data suggests that it may not matter what you say to people, just that you’re saying it a lot.”  The researcher also says that recent increased funding for anti-smoking campaigns may contribute to reduction in smoking among adults in the United States.

Is Nicotine Replacement Effective for Smoking Cessation?

Friday, January 27th, 2012

A new study published in an advanced online edition of Tobacco Control concluded that nicotine replacement therapies (NRTs) such as nicotine patches and nicotine gum used to assist with smoking cessation do not seem to be effective long-term even when used in combination with counseling.
In the prospective study researchers followed 787 adult smokers who had recently stopped smoking. Surveyed over three time periods, 2001-2002, 2003-2004, and 2005-2006, subjects were asked whether or not they used nicotine replacement therapy in the form of a patch, gum, inhaler, or spray to help them quit, and if so, how long they had used the product. Subjects were also asked if they had joined a quit-smoking program, or received help from professions such as a physician or counselor.
Results showed that for each time period studied, almost 1/3 of the recent quitters had reported a relapse. There was no difference in the relapse rate of those using NRT for more than 6 weeks with or without professional counseling and no difference in successful quitting using NRT for heavy or light smokers. The researchers xoncluded “This study shows that using NTR is no more effective in helping people stop smoking cigarettes in the long-term than trying to quit on one’s own. “

Research Finds Chantix is Unsuitable for First-Line Smoking Cessation

Friday, November 11th, 2011

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Research published in the November 2 issue of PLoS ONE concluded varenicline (Chantix) is unsuitable for first line use for smoking cessation because of its poor safety profile. Results showed a -substantially increased risk of reported depression or suicidal behavior compared to other smoking cessation treatments. Ninety-percent of all reported suicides related to smoking-cessation drugs since 1988 implicated Chantix despite the fact that it was only on the market 4 of the 13 years of the study. In addition, it was eight times more likely to result in a reported case of suicidal behavior or depression than nicotine replacement products and was associated with more suicidal behavior than any other smoking-cessation drug on the U.S. market. The researchers analyzed 3,249 case reports of serious injury from the FDA’s Adverse Event Reporting System between 1998 and September, 2010 for self-injurious behavior or depression related to Chantix, Zyban (bupropion) and nicotine replacement products. For suicidal behavior and depression 90% (2,925 cases) were related to Chantix, 7% (229) related to Zyban, and 3% (95) were related to nicotine replacement products. The researchers also said there are other safety issues with Chantix found by other researchers. They concluded “We agree with the recommendation of the U.S., Veterans Administration (VA) that varenicline should be prescribed only after failure of nicotine replacement , bupropion or a combination.” They further said “We
strongly recommend that the FDA should revise the black box warning to say what the study and the FDA ‘s own data shows–that varenicline has higher risks for suicidal behavior and depression than other smoking-cessation treatments.” .

Varenicline, a Smoking Cessation Medication, Linked to a High Risk of Cardiovascular Event

Wednesday, July 13th, 2011

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A new study reported in the July 4 issue of the Canadian Medical Association Journal concluded that “among tobacco users varenicline use was associated with a significant increased risk of serious adverse cardiovascular events greater than 72 percent.” Researchers evaluated 14 double-bind, randomized, controlled studies that included 4,908 subjects using varenicline and 3,308 controls taking a placebo. Most subjects were men under the age of 45. No study followed subjects more than a year, and all except one excluded people with heart disease. In the group, 52 of the 4,908 subjects (1.06%) had an adverse event compared to 27 of 3,308 (0.82%) of the controls. The number of people who died in each group was the same at 7. The authors concluded that clinicians should balance the adverse effect of this smoking cessation medication against known benefits before using it.