Posts Tagged ‘cigarette smoking’

Is the Timing of the First Cigarette of the Day Associated with Lung Cancer Risk?

Friday, June 27th, 2014


A new study published in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute concluded that the timing of the first cigarette of the day may be associated with getting lung cancer in both heavy and light smokers. This factor may be added to standard markers of nicotine dependence that include cigarettes smoked daily, duration of smoking, and cumulative exposure (pack years). Researchers analyzed data on 3249 ever smokers of which 1812 were lung cancer patients.  Those without lung cancer in the sample served as controls and were matched by residence, sex, and age. . The research question was “How soon after you wake up do you usually smoke your first cigarette of the day?” Responses were categorized as: 5 or fewer, 6 to 30 minutes, 31 to 60 minutes and more than 60 minutes. After controlling for smoking intensity, duration and other cancer risk factors, the cancer risk was significantly higher for those who had their first cigarette within a shorter time of rising when compared to those who smoked their first cigarette after 1 hour. This relationship held for both light and heavy smokers, and for current and past smokers but not different between men and women. Researchers concluded that although the data support a signicantly higher risk of lung cancer for those who smoke sooner upon arising there is need for more research to validate these findings.


Can Smoking Change our Genes?

Friday, December 27th, 2013

logo1267406_mdA new study published in the journal Human Molecular Genetics concluded that smoking alters several genes that can be associated with health problems such as increased risk of cancer and diabetes. Although we inherit our genes from our patents the genetic material can later be changes by epigenetic  modification such as chemical alterations of the DNA that affect the activity of the genes. These alterations are normally caused by aging but can also be a result of environmental factors and lifestyle.Researchers identified a large number of genes that were altered in smokers but found noi such effect in non-smokers. The researcher said “This means that the epigenetic modifications are likely not caused by substances in the tobacco, but by the hundreds of different elements that are formed when the tobacco is burnt.”  ….”Our results therefore indicate that the increased disease risk associated with smoking is partly a cuased by epigenetiv changes.”

Can Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems Reduce Smoking?

Friday, February 15th, 2013

logo1267406_mdA new study published in online Elsevier reported on electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) that debuted in China in 2002, and have become available globally especially through the Internet.  Little is known about their long term health effect and addiction possibility and are of varying nicotine content and  delivery. They have been banned by health authorities in Canada and Australia.

Researchers from the United States, Australia, the United Kingdom, and Canada investigated ENDS awareness, use, and perception among current and former cigarette users. Researchers were unaware of previous studies of cross-national patterns of ENDS use. Data were collected from around 6,000 telephone and web surveys in the four countries between July 2010 and June 2011. Overall awareness of ENDS reached about 47 percent ranging from 73 percent in the United States where they are legal, to 20 percent in Australia where they are banned.  Awareness was highest among younger (age 18-24), non-minority populations with higher incomes and of those aware, 16 percent had tried ENDS. Just over 70 percent said ENDS were less harmful than traditional cigarettes and perception of harm was highest in the United States and United Kingdom.

Almost 80 percent said they used ENDS because they were considered less harmful than traditional cigarettes and almost seventy five percent said they used ENDS to reduce the number of cigarettes they smoked. Eighty five percent said they used ENDS to help quit smoking and almost 75 percent used them to access nicotine in smoke-free spaces. Researchers said “This study represents a snapshot in time of the use of ENDS from mid 2010 to mid 2011. As the market evolves, awareness, trial, and use of ENDS is likely to increase. Should regulatory authorities approve direct claims about reduced harm, one might expect greater adoption of these products, at least among current cigarette smokers. If credible evidence can be provided to regulators, through independently researched, well-controlled studies, that ENDS reduces the number of cigarette smokers and does not attract use among nonsmokers, then the net public health effect is likely to be positive.”