Posts Tagged ‘detection’

Improved Diagnostic Test for Prostate Cancer.

Wednesday, May 20th, 2015

Improved Diagnostic Test for Prostate Cancer

A new study reported in Science digest concluded that a new urine-based test for prostate cancer improves detection when compared to prostate serum antigen (PSA) levels. This test also improved detection of the more aggressive forms of prostate cancer. The new test is called Mi-Prostate Score (MiPS)  and combines the PSA with two prostate cancer markers-T2:ERG and PCA3 both of which can be detected through a urine test.  The test was indicated because about 50% of all men having biopsies will not have cancer.

In the study 1,977 men having the prostate biopsy because of elevated PSA levels were evaluated. Researchers used urine samples to conduct MiPS testing and compared with various combinations of PSA, PBA3, T2:ERG and other PSA-based calculations. The testing evaluated how well individual biomarkers and combinations predicted the likelihood of cancer and high-risk cancer.  Although there is no one cut-off score  for a positive result, they found that using one MiPS cutoff score to decide whether or not to biopsy patients would reduce the number of biopsies by one-third, while delaying the diagnosis of only about 1 percent of high-risk prostate cancers. More research is ongoing.

One dollar blood test using gold nanoparticles more effective than PSA test in prostate cancer detection.

Wednesday, April 8th, 2015

Prostate Cancer Detection with gold nanoparticles

A new study published in ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces concluded that a test using gold nanoparticles to detect early stage prostate cancer costs less that $1, has results in minutes and is more accurate than standard PSA screening. The gold particles attract cancer bio markers. The researchers test detects the immune response that the body produces in response to the development of a tumor. The gold nanoparticles are about 10,000 times smaller than a freckle.  When blood from a finger prick is mixed with the gold nanoparticles, certain cancer biomarkers cling to the surface of the tiny particles. increases their size and causes them to clump together. In the test they are able to measure the size of the particles by analyzing the light thrown off and the size reveals whether or not the patient has prostate cancer and how advanced it may be. Researchers said “Whats different and unique about our technique is it’s a very simple process, and the material required for the test is less than $1. And because it’s low cost, we’re hopinf most people can have this test in their doctor’s office. If we can catch this cancer in its early stages, the impact is going to be big.”

Evaluation of the test determined at 90 to 95 percent that it is not false positive, and with 50% confidence that it is not false negative which is higher than the PSA confidence in false positive at 20%. More research is planned with the eventual goal of hqving a simple, cheap test for various cancer types.

Improving the Accuracy of Clinical Breast Exams.

Wednesday, February 25th, 2015

Improving the Accuracy of Clinical Breast Exams

A new study in the New England Journal of Medicine concluded that sensor technology has the potential to significantly improve the teaching of proper techniques for clinical breast exams. In the study researchers asked 553 practicing physicians during an annual clinical meeting to perform simulated clinical breast exams (CBE) under conditions that mimic an office visit for a symptomatic patient. participants completed a demographic survey, reviewed a clinical senario, performed the CBE on a sensor-enabled breast model, and then documented their findings. Researchers hoped to capture CBE technique while clinicians were evaluating the model for a mass. Results showed that physicians who palpated fewer than 10 newtons (a common measurement of force) were able to find two superficial masses on the breast model but missed the two deeper ones. Physicians increasing the amount of palpable pressure unproved the probability of identifying the deeper lesions. It was suggested that the optimum palpable force for deeper lesions is between 12 and 17 newtons. Researchers found that 15 percent of physicians in the study used a technique that put them at significant risk of missing deep tissue lesions near the chest wall. Researchers suggested considering mastery training in the health care professions to overcome this problem.

A New Exam Increases Detection of Invasive Breast Cancer Almost Threefold.

Wednesday, January 28th, 2015

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A new study in the American Journal of Roentgenology concluded that by using Molecular Breast Imaging (MBI),  a supplemental imaging technology to find tumors otherwise obscured by dense tissue on mammograms,  researchers were able to increase detection of invasive breast cancer in women  almost threefold.

In the study 1,585 women with heterogeneously or extremely dense breasts underwent an MBI exam at the time of their screening mammogram. This procedure increased the detection rate of invasive breast cancer by more than 360 percent when used in addition to regular screening mammograms. MBI uses small semiconductor-based gamma cameras that image the breast after injection of a radioactive traxcer that is absorbed by the tumor.

New Prostate Cancer Detection Method is Less Invasive.

Friday, April 18th, 2014

logo1267406_mdProstate cancer detection is currently done by a biopsy that is painful and involves risks. A less invasive procedure was researched and presented at the European Assoiciation of Urology Congress in Stockholm this week that may reduce or eliminate the need for biopsies. The researchers developed a method to investigate whether and where men have prostate cancer using existing ultrasound scanners that create images in the body using sound waves. . Because ultrasound is unable to determine the difference between healthy and tumor tissue in images, researchers used thae fact that tumor tissue produces large numbers of small blood vessels that allow it to grow with a characteristic pattern., Patients are given a single injection of a contrast medium containing tiny bubbles, which are shown by the ultrasound scanner right down to the smallest blood vessels. Using advanced image-analysis techniques that can recognize the characteristic blood vessel pattern in tumors, the computer then generates an image that shows where the tumor is. The examination takes one minute and results are available within a few minutes.

Comparing the images with the prostate after removal by surgery of 24 patients  researchers found the images were a good indication of the location and size of the tumors. A comparison of the new and old procedures will be carried out next by the researchers.

A Simple Blood Test Can Detect Lung and Breast Cancers Before Symptoms.

Friday, October 5th, 2012

A new study reported in Mail Online concluded that a new blood test can accurately detect the beginning stages of lung and breast cancers long before symptoms appear. In their initial study researchers had a 95% success rate detecting cancer in participants including those with stages 0 and 1 breast cancer, and those with stages 1 and 2 lung cancer. Stage 2 is when patients usually begin to have symptoms.

In the test increased enzyme activity indicating illness  and found in the blood are mixed with certain amino acids along with a dye that interact. Each type of cancer produces a specific enzyme pattern, or signature, that can be identified by the doctor.  The researchers see this as a first step into a new arena of investigations and suggest that the people who could most benefit are those classified as at risk for cancer, such as heavy smokers and people who have a family history of cancer.  He said “The idea is these at-risk groups could go to their physician’s office quarterly or once a year, take an easy–to-do, noninvasive test, and be told early on whether cancer had possibly developed.”

?Researchers tested the accuracy of the test on 32 participants in various stages of breast or lung cancer. Data was collected from 20 people with breast cancer ranging from age 36 to 81, and 12 lung cancer patients ranging in age from 27 to 63. Twelve controls without cancer were tested for comparison and ranged in age from 26 to 62.  A blood test from each participant was tested 3 times and analysis showed a 95% success rate in detecting cancer in subjects. Further research to test pancreatic cancer and triple-negative breast cancer is planned beginning next month.

New Less-Invasive Method for Detecting and Monitoring Prostate Cancer

Wednesday, October 3rd, 2012

A recent study published in the online Journal of Urology concluded that contrast-enhanced ultrasound was better at detecting high grade prostate cancer than conventional methods making it more appropriate for screening and monitoring with less biopsies. The randomized, double bind study used microbubbles to measure changes in blood flow and found almost three times as many higher grade cancers using half as many needle biopsies compared to systemic biopsy methods. The lead researcher said “Today, a physician may sample 12 to 18 tissue cores from the prostate in order to help diagnose a patient.  But with contrast-enhanced, that number drops to six or even less.”  “So it’s less invasive, and a more effective tool.”

In the clinical trial of 311 men, 118 had positive prostate cancer biopsies revealing that targeted biopsies using contrast-enhanced ultrasound witrh microbubbles detected significantly more  higher voolume/grade prostate cancers (clinically significant) in men (55 percent) compared toi a conventiuonal prostate buiopsy technique (17 percent). All subjects received targeted biopsies using contrast-enhanced ultrasound with flash replenishment maximum intensity projection MicroFlow Imaging and a systemic 12-core biopsy protocol for comparison. The mean age of suvjects was 62 years and a PSA of 6.5ng/ml.

Can Untrasound be Useful in Detecting Cancer?

Friday, July 20th, 2012

Recent research published in the journal Radiology found that the use of a new high- resolution  ultrasound device could show a “definitive difference between vessels within and surrounding tumors versus those associated with normal healthy vasculature.”  However, the method only works for tumors at a shallow depth in the tissue, such as melanoma or thyroid cancer. The device is based upon vessel bendiness or “tortuosity” and potentially offers an inexpensive non-invasive fast method to detect cancers that are less than a centimeter in size. The device is called acoustric angiogram and allows images of the blood vessels only and filters out all tissue signals, so small blood vessels can be seen clearly.  More research is planned to focus on the image depth issue and also evaluate the ability of the technology to determine a tumor”s response to treatment.

Simple Minimal Invasive Probe May Detect Pancreatic Cancer

Wednesday, May 30th, 2012

A new study reported in a news release concluded that by shining a small light within the small intestine, close to the junction with the pancreas, physicians can detect pancreatic cancer 100% of the time in a small study. Physicians at Mayo clinic Campus in Jacksonville, Florida attached a light to a small probe that was ” designed to measure changes in cells and blood vessels in the small intestine produced by a growing cancer in the adjoining pancreas. ”  Researchers said “Although results are still preliminary, the concept of detection field effects of nearby cancers hold great promise for possible early detection of pancreatic cancers.” This small study that was 100% successful will be tested in a larger international clinical trial led by Mayo Clinic Researchers.

Annual vs Biennual Mammography for Breast Cancer Detection

Friday, October 28th, 2011

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A new study to be published in the Annals of Internal Medicine concluded that by being screened for mammogram every other year a woman’s probability of having a false positive episode is reduced by about a third-from 61% to 42% over the course of a decade. –

In the study almost 170,000 women between age 40 and 59 from seven regions of the United States and almost 4,500 women with invasive breast cancer were evaluated in relation to mammograms. Because of the added decade of testing, they found that women who started mammograms at 40 instead of 50 were more likely to have more false-positive results that lead to more treatment. The authors said “this study provides accurate estimates of the risk of a false-positive mammography and breast biopsy for women undergoing repeat mammography in community practice, and so provides important information about the potential harms of undergoing regular mammography.”
An additional report to be published in the same issue of the Annals of Internal Medicine studied almost 333.000 women between age 40 and 79 to examine the accuracy of film mammography against digital screening which is replacing the older film screening. Findings showed that overall cancer detection rates were similar for both methods but digital screening may be better for women between age 40 and 49 who are more likely to have extremely dense breasts associated with lower cancer detection. The study also found that digital mammography better detects estrogen receptor-negative tumors for women between age 40 and 49. If women start biennial screening at age 40, they will undergo 17 exams, and those who start annual screenings at age 40 will undergo 34 exams. The researchers concluded that screening every other year would likely lessen the chances of false-positive tests but “could also delay cancer diagnosis.” However, the authors found that for those diagnosed with cancer, women screened every two years were not significantly more likely to be diagnosed with late-stage cancer compared to those screened every year.