Posts Tagged ‘risk’

Can Moderate Activity Lower Breast Cancer Risk?

Wednesday, October 9th, 2013

logo1267406_mdA new study published early online in Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers, and Prevention concluded walking at least 7 hours a week is associated with a 14% lower risk of developing breast cancer after menopause. They also found that this association held whether or not the women were overweight and whether of not they gained weight during the study.

Seventy three thousand six hundred fifteen women post menopausal women from the CPS-II Nutritional Cohort were evaluated for an association between breast cancer and exercise level. Over 17 years 4,760 women were diagnosed with breast cancer. Those who walked at least 7 miles a week had a 14% lower risk of breast cancer compared to those who walked 3 or fewer miles. The women walked at a moderate pace (about 3 miles an hour). Those who were most active by walking and vigorous exercises had a 25% lower risk of breast cancer compared to the least active women.  Researchers concluded “Our research clearly supports an association between physical activity and postmenopausal breast cancer, with more vigorous activity having a stronger effect.”

Does Eating Walnuts Reduce the Risk and Produce Smaller Prostate Cancers?

Friday, July 26th, 2013

logo1267406_mdA new study reported in Cancer Investigation concluded that eating a modest amount of walnuts can protect against prostate cancer. In studies researchers injected  tumors cells and noted they  start to grow in a large number of mice in 3 to 4 weeks. A previous study asked if a walnut-enriched diet would be associated with a reduced cancer formation in the injected mice and found positive results.In the prostate study the walnut enriched diet was utilized with prostate cell injected mice. Results showed that 3 ( 18 percent) of the walnut enriched diet injercted mice developed prostate cancer compared to 14 of 32 mice (44 percent) on the non-walnut controlled diet. In addition, the average size of the tumor in the mice with the walnut enriched diet was about 1/4 the size of the pro9state tumor as the non walnut eating control group. Researchers said ” We found the results to be stunning because there were so few tumors in animals consuming the walnuts and these tumors grew much more slowly than in the other animals.”     The diet for all mice was a typical animal diet except for the addition of the walnuts for the subjects. The walnuts added to the diet was equivalent to a human eating about 2 ounces, or two handfuls, daily. Conclusions by the researchers were “The data to date suggest that using walnuts on a regular basis in the diet may be beneficial to defer, prevent, or delay some types of cancer, including breast and prostate. “

Is the Risk of Cancer Less Likely if You Have Long-Lived Parents?

Friday, June 7th, 2013

logo1267406_md

 

 

 

New research published in the Journal of Gerontology concluded that children of parents who live to an older age are more likely to live longer and are less likely to have cancer and other common diseases associated with aging. Children with long lived parents were compared with those who had average lived parents. Long lived mothers were those over age 91 and average lived were 77 to 91 whereas long lived fathers were past 87 and average lived fathers were 65 to 87. Over 97,000 people were followed over 18 years and were interviewed every two years about such information as ages of p0arents, and when they died.  In 2010 participants were in their seventies and 938 cases of cancer developing during the 18 year follow up between 1992 and 2010 in  America.  they found that people who had long lived mothers or fathers were 24% less likely to get cancer. They also found that overall mortality rates dropped by up to 19 percent for each decade that at least one parent lived past the age of 65. For For those whose others lived beyond age 85, mortality rates were 40 percent lower and fo fathers it was 14 percent possibly because of lifestyle choices such as smoking. The researchers said this is the first  evidence that children of longer-lived parents are less likely to get cancer. They also found that they are less likely to get diabetes and less likely to suffer a stroke. These protective effects are passed on from parents who live beyond age 65-far younger than shown in previous studies. although children of longer lived parents can get these diseases but it is less likely.

Can Frequent Heartburn Predict Cancer of the Throat and Vocal Cord?

Wednesday, May 29th, 2013

logo1267406_mdRecent research published in Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention reported that frequent heartburn was positively associated with cancer of the throat and vocal cord among nonsmokers and nondrinkers, and the use of antacids, but not prescription medications, had a protective effect.  Although there were previous studies on gastric reflux and cancer of the head and neck that generated mixed reviews the current researchers said “Most of those studies had either gew numbers of cases or they were not adjusted for confounding factors. Ours is a large population-based study with robust parameters that stro9ngly suggest gastric reflux, which causes frequent heartburn, is an independent risk factor for cancers of the pharynx (throat) and larynx (vocal cord).”

Six hundred thirty one patients from a large group of individuals enrolled in a population based, case controlled study in the Boston area  served as cases in the study. Of these 468 had throat cancer and 163 had cancer of the vocal cord. In addition, 1,234 individuals were matched by age and gender and with no previous history of cancer served as controls.

All participants completed a questionnaire including a history of   heartburn,  smoking, drinking habits, family history of cancer, and socioeconomic information. Because of link between some head and neck cancers and an infection caused by human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) all participants were tested for the presence of antigens to HPV 16 virus protein.

Results showed that among participants who were neither heavy smokers nor heavy drinkers, a history of frequent heartburn was linked to a 78 percent increased risk of cancer of the throat and vocal cord. Findings also demonstrated that taking antacids but not prescription medications or home remedies, had a protective effect upon those in the heartburn group who took them. This group ad a 41 percent reduced risk of cancer of the throat and vocal cord anmd this protection was consistent regardless of the participants smoking or drinking status, HPV 16 status, or tumor site.  The researchers said additional studies are needed to validate these results.

Is Excess Sugar Linked to Cancer”

Wednesday, February 6th, 2013

logo1267406_mdWhat has long been known by alternative physicians and others who use non-traditional approaches to cancer treatment has not been researched and shown to be true -there is a link between sugar and cancer. In recent research published in Molecular Cell researchers concluded that sustained high levels of sugar, as is found in diabetes, damage our cells and now is shown that it can increase our changes of having cancer.  It was known that in obesity and diabetes the body fails to control, blood sugar levels but less was known about this connection with cancer. But now it is known that the diabetes population has up to double chances to suffer pancreatic or colon cancer risk. This research a key mechanism that links obesity and diabetes with cancer and that is high sugar levels which increase activities of a gene widely implicated in cancer progression.

The researchers were studying how cells in the intestines respondf to sugars and signal the pancreas to release insulin, the key hormone that controls blood sugar levels. Sugars in the intestines trigger cells to release a protein called GIP that enhances insulin release by the pancreas. In this study they showed that the ability of the intestinal cells to secrete GIP is controlled by a protein calledβ-catenin, and its activity is strictly dependent upon sugar levels. The researcher said “We were surprised to realize that changes in our metabolism caused by dietary sugar impact our cancer risk. We are now investigating what other dietary components may influence our cancer risk. Changing diet is one of the easiest strategies that can potentially save a lot of suffering and money.”

Will Higher Carotenoid Levels Reduce the Risk of Breast Cancer?

Wednesday, December 12th, 2012

A new study in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute concluded that women with higher circulating carotenoid levels are at a reduced risk of breast cancer.  Carotenoids are micronutrients found in fruits and vegetables and have previously been found to have anticarcinogenic properties because they inhibit the tumor progression and reduce proliferation of estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) and estrogen receptor-negative (ER-) breast cancers. However, in these studies the specific carotenoid differed across multiple studies.

To evaluate the association between specific carotenoids and breast cancer the researchers conducted a pooled analysis of eight cohort studies that gathered over 80% of the worlds published prospective data on plasma or serum carotenoids and breast cancer. In the pooled data there were 3,055 subjects and 3,956 matched controls. The carotenoid levels of participants were re-calibrated to a common standard to explain laboratory differences as well as to examine the differences across populations.

Researchers found that in over 3,000 subjects, there were statistically significant inverse associations between circulating levels of individual and total carotrenoids and breast cancer risk, with a stronger finding in ER- breast cancers. The researchers said  ” The inverse associations we observed among ER- tumors highlight carotenoids as one of the first modifiable risk factors for this poor prognosis tumor type.” Further they say “A diet high in carotenoid-rich fruits and vegetables offers many health benefits, including a possible reduced risk of breast cancer. “

Can Vitamin E Reduce Liver Cancer Risk?

Friday, July 27th, 2012

A new study published in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute concluded that high consumption of vitamin E  from diet or supplements may lower the risk of liver cancer. Although we rarely hear about liver cancer, it is the third most common cause of cancer mortality in the world and a large percentage of these occurs in developing countries.

Data was analyzed from 132,737 people in China who were enrolled in the Shanghai Women’s Health Study from 1997 to 2000, or the Shanghai Men’s Health Study from 2002 to 2006.

In-person interviews to gather data on dietary habits were conducted using validated food-frequency questionaires.  Questions were included on how often participants ate some of the most commonly consumed Shanghai foods and whether or not they took vitamin supplements. Liver cancer risk was then determined between those with high and low vitamin E intake.

There were 267 liver cancer patients (118 women and 149 men) diagnosed between 2 years after study enrollment and an average of 10.9 years for women and 5.5 years for men. Researchers found that vitamin E intake from both food and supplements were associated with a lower risk of liver cancer. The researchers said ” We found a clear, inverse dose-response relationship between vitamin E intake and liver cancer risk.” “Overall, the take home message is that the high intake of vitamin E either from diet or supplements was related to lower risk of liver cancer in middle -aged or older people from China.”  Conversely, those who had the highest intake of vitamin C intake from supplements who had a family history of liver disease or self-reported liver disease were more likely to develop liver cancer.

Will Avoiding Unnecessary Medical Imaging Reduce Breast Cancer Risk?

Wednesday, June 20th, 2012

Last December the Institute of Medicine issued a report from researchers at the University of California that reviewed all available scientific data available about potential environmental risks for breast cancer. This report included such factors as pesticides, beauty products, household chemicals, and plastics used in water bottles and found that x-rays and radiation based upon medical imaging and post-menopausal hormone replacement had risks for breast cancer. There was not enough data to confirm or rule out the other identified sources.

A report in the Archives of Internal Medicine quoted Dr Rebecca Smith- Bindman at the University of California who wrote the article and who contributed to the IOM report and who said  said  “The single thing that the IOM highlighted that a woman can do to lower her risk of breast cancer is to avoid unnecessary medical imaging.”  The U.S. National Toxicology Program recognizes that x-rays are a human carcinogen, that is, exposure to radiation can boost the risk of cancer and Dr John Gofman, a UCSF nuclear physician said 75% of breast cancer cases had something to do with medical imaging. Thus, this source of breast cancer risk may be preventable to some extent by avoiding when possible.

is the Consumption of Red Meat Linked to Cancer Mortality.

Friday, March 23rd, 2012

A new study in the Archives of Internal Medicine concluded that red meat consumption is associated with an increased risk of total, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality and that substituting other healthy protein sources, such as fish, poultry, nuts, and legumes , was associated with a lower risk of mortality. The researchers say “Our study adds more evidence to the health risk of eating high amounts of red meat, which has been associated with type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, stroke, and certain cancers in other studies.”

Researchers prospectively followed 37,698 men from the Health Professions Follow-up Study for 22 years and 83,544 women in the Nurses’ Health Study for up to 28 years who were free of cardiovascular disease and cancer at baseline. Every four years the diets of subjects were assessed.  Over the study period there were 23,926 deaths in the two groups of which 5,910 were from cardiovascular disease and 9,464 from cancer.  Regular consumption of red meat, particularly processed red meat, was associated with increased mortality risk. A daily serving of unprocessed red meat of about the size of a deck of cards was associated with a 13 percent increase risk of mortality and a daily serving of processed red meat consisting of a hot dog or two slices of bacon was associated with a 20 percent increased risk. The corresponding risk for cancer mortality was 10% and 16 percent even after adjusting for risk factors such as age, body mass index, physical activity, and family history of major cancers.

Replacing a serving of red meat with one serving of a healthy protein source was associated with a lower mortality risk as follows: 7% for fish, 14% for poultry, 19% for nuts,  10% for legumes, 10% for low-fat dairy products, and 14% for who9le grains.  Researchers estimated that 9.3 % of the deaths in men and 7.6 % of the deaths in women could have been prevented if all subjects had consumed less than 0.5 servings per day of red meat.

Pancreatic Cancer Risk Lowered with Aspirin Use

Wednesday, April 20th, 2011

logo1267406_md

A study presented at the American Association of Cancer Research in Florida from April 2 to 6, concluded that there was a significant reduction in pancreatic cancer risk for those individuals using aspirin at least once a month. Although this was a large collaborative study the results are preliminary according to the researcher and widespread use of aspirin without medical consultation is discouraged.
In the study 904 patients with documented pancreatic cancer were compared with 1,224 healthy patients. All were at least 55 years of age and reported their use of aspirin, NSAIDs and acetaminophen by questionaire. Results showed that those who took aspirin at least monthly had a 26% reduced risk of pancreatic cancer compared to those who did not take regular aspirin. The results were also seen for those who took low dose aspirin for heart disease prevention at a 35% reduction. However, no benefits were seen for using non-aspirin NSAIDs or acetaqminophen.

More information is available at:
http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:3mKguKWia2YJ:www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/new