Archive for the ‘research’ Category

Chemo-Brain is part of Cancer Progression and Chemotherapy

Friday, December 1st, 2017

Chemo brain or chemo fog are the memory and thinking problems experienced by cancer survivors are not just the result of chemotherapy but may start as the tumor forms and develops  before chemo was used according to a new study published in the journal Neuroscience.  Researchers found that female mice with a form of breast cancer demonstrat4ed impaired performance on learning and memory tests before chemotherapy drugs were used., They said “Our work isolated that the cancer is responsible for some of the memory and thinking complaints experienced by cancer survivors, and that drug therapy adds to the problem.” “Both factors independently effect brain function in different ways, which can lead to the development of other psychological disturbances, such as anxiety and depression.” Researchers said as many as 65on. taking longer to complete tasks, and difficulty multitasking.

Progression of tumor and later chemotherapy lead researchers to the identification of three different brain changes. 1)The combination of tumor growth and chemotherapy led to shrinkage of . While the tumor is developing, the body’s immune system releases cytokines  to inhibit the cancer development. Researchers found this reaction caused in the brains nervous system impairing its function. 2) Chemotherapy limited the production of new brain cells in the regions responsible for memory function which lead to a loss of memory. 3)  The combination of tumor growth and chemotherapy lead to shrinkage in brain regions that are important for learning and memory.

the study involved female mice, half with cancer and the other half without. Learning and memory tests were administered initially to determine the the impact of the tumor on the brain. After this mice were either given chemo or a saline solution (control). .Tests were again administered plus some additional ones. After testing was completed researchers brain images, tissue, and blood samples were used to analyze changes in brain structure and cytokinase activity mentioned earlier Before treatment mice with tumors performed less well on memory and learning tests than mice without tumors. After chemotherapy the performance of cancerous mice worsened, and the non-cancerous mice also showed sign’s of deterioration     Further research is planned..

 

Drinking Coffee may Increase Life Span.

Wednesday, November 29th, 2017

 

A review of over 200 studies published in the British Medical Journal suggest that frinking three or four cups of coffee daily is linked to a lower risk of early death  and getting heart disease  than not drinking coffee. The researcher said drinking coffee “is more likely to to benefit health than harm it” for a range of health outcomes such as cancer, diabetes, kiver dusease and dementia. Exceptioms are women who are pregnant and those who suffer fractures.

No firm conclusions can be drawn because the majority of studies were observational but back up other recent studies. Thus, they say “with the exception of pregnancy and women at risk of fractures “coffee drinking appears safew within usual patterns of consuymption” and could be tested further inrandomized studies.

In the study the largest reduction in death was related to drinking 3 cups a day compared with non-coffee drinkers. Drinking moire than 3 cups daily were not associatioted with harm but were not as beneficial. Beneficial effects related to a lower risk of several cancers including prostate, endometrial, skin, and liver, as well as tyoe 2 diabete, gall stones, and gout. The greatest benefit weas seen for liver disease such as cirrhosis. Additional benefits were seen for Parkinson disease, depression, and Altzheimers disease. Researchers recommended against starting drinking coffee for health benefits until the evidence of an association is stronger.

Metastatic Prostate Cancer predicted with new Biomarker in Lab. .

Wednesday, November 22nd, 2017

Many.prostate cancers that are usually diagnosed in older men are slow growing and not considered fatal.  But some become aggressive and spread beyond the prostate, making them difficult to treat and life-threatening. With current knowledge doctors are unable to determine which will be slow growing and which will spread to other sites. In this study published recently in Clinical Cancer Research  report discovering a genetic signature .within prostate cancer that can predict which tumors are likely to metastasize.

Using several data sets of prostate cancer patients and outcomes researchers found that a high number expressed two genes:  TOP2A and EZH2 were associated with early recurrence of prostate cancer and metastatic spread leading to an increased risk of death. Strong metastatic tendencies were only expressed if both genes were found in the tumor. Researchers said: “Altogether we found that high levels of TOP2A and EZH2 expression consistently associated in the progression to a metastatic and lethal disease. ”

Using mouse prostate cancer cells in the lab, researchers found that cells containing overexposed  TOP2A and EZH2  genes were highly sensitive to attack with a combination of 2 drugs. However, clinical trials are necessary to make a definitive statement. It is hoped that attacking these genes with drugs may prevent aggressive cells from p metastasizing. . 

Alzheimers-Here today. Gone tomorrow. Good News.

Sunday, November 19th, 2017

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dr. Dale Bredesen is internationally recognized as an expert in the mechanisms of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease. He graduated from Caltech, then earned his MD from Duke University Medical Center in Durham, NC. He served as Chief Resident in Neurology at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) before joining Nobel laureate Stanley Prusiner’s laboratory at UCSF as an NIH Postdoctoral Fellow. He held faculty positions at UCSF, UCLA and the University of California, San Diego. Dr. Bredesen directed the Program on Aging at the Burnham Institute before coming to the Buck Institute in 1998 as its founding President and CEO.  Dr Bredesen has mentored many, many physicians and PhD learners in his lab, presented over 300 papers, written over 200 peer reviewed papers written numerous book chapters and abstracts,, written several books including his recent the End of Alzheimer’s: The first program to prevent and reverse cognitive decline, received numerous patents and honors. In addition, recently he has been interviewed on many television  and radio shows including Dr Oz. You can see his curriculum vitae at: https://docs.wixstatic.com/ugd/1a2e49_f0a51bffa9a341dca2ab7af9b6fd0c3d.pdf

The uniform failure of recent drug trials in Alzheimer’s disease has highlighted the critical need for a more accurate understanding of the fundamental nature of Alzheimer’s disease. Dr. Bredesen’s research has led to new insight that explains the erosion of memory seen in Alzheimer’s disease, and has opened the door to a new therapeutic approach. He has found evidence that Alzheimer’s disease stems from an imbalance in nerve cell signaling: in the normal brain, specific signals foster nerve connections and memory making, while balancing signals support memory breaking, allowing irrelevant information to be forgotten. But in Alzheimer’s disease, the balance of these opposing signals is disturbed, nerve connections are suppressed, and memories are lost. This model is contrary to popular dogma that Alzheimer’s is a disease of toxicity, caused by the accumulation of sticky plaques in the brain. Bredesen believes the amyloid beta peptide, the source of the plaques, has a normal function in the brain — promoting signals that allow some of the nerve connections to lapse. Thus the increase in the peptide that occurs in Alzheimer’s disease shifts the memory-making vs. memory-breaking balance in favor of memory loss. This work has led to the identification of several new therapeutic candidates that are currently in pre-clinical trials.

Dr. Bredesen’s novel insights into the fundamental nature of Alzheimer’s disease recently attracted an investment of $3.5 million toward a $10 million goal for initial clinical trials of these new therapeutics. This generous support came from the private venture capitalist Douglas Rosenberg, who is helping to fund the Alzheimer’s Drug Discovery Network, centered at the Buck Institute. The unit is screening drug candidates to find those that can preserve a healthy balance in the signaling pathways that support memory. Dr. Bredesen’s work on nerve cell signaling is also the focus of a collaboration between the Buck Institute and BioMarin Pharmaceuticals, Inc., which is seeking treatments for a rare form of Alzheimer’s disease, early onset Familial Alzheimer’s Disease (eFAD), which may develop in people as young as 30 years of age.

Listen to the Interview below:

 

 

Nutritional absorption is enhanced by a spoonful of oil on vegetables.

Friday, November 10th, 2017

A new study published in  the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition concluded that adding a spoonful of oil or fat to vegetables increases their ability to be absorbed.  Specifically adding soybean oil promoters the absorption  of eight different nutrients that promote health. Conversely, eating the same vegetables without the oil increases the likelihood that they will not be absorbed. Salad vegetables included  four carotenoids–alpha and beta carotene, luetin and lycopene—two forms of vitamin E and K,  The oil also promotes the absorption of vitamin A-the 8th nutrient studied. Better absorption is important to promote health including preventing cancer, and eyesight preservation. Researchers also found that the more oil the better the absorption,. The researcher warned that oils should still be limited to the 2 tablespoon daily recommendation

The study included 12 college-age women who consumed salads with varying amounts of soy bean oil. Maximum absorption occurred at a little more than 2 tablespoons ( at  32 grams of fat) but there was some variation among women. The researchers recommended salad oil on salads.

Health Elderly have Same Gut Microbes as Healthy 30 Year Olds

Wednesday, November 8th, 2017

A new study published in the journal Sphere showed that the overall microbiota composition of the healthy elderly population was similar to that of healthy people in their 30’s and the gut microbiota differed little between individuals from the age of 30 to over 100.  The study was carried out between Western University, Lawson Health Research Institute and Tianyi Health Science Institute in Zhenjiang Jiangsu, China and studied gut bacteria in a cohort of more than 1,000 Chinese people in ages ranging from 3 to over 100 years who were self selected to be extremely healthy with no known health issues or family disease.  The results showed a direct correlation between health and the microbes in the intestine. Authors concluded that if you are extremely healthy and 90 years old, your gut microbiota is not that different from a healthy 30 year old in the same population. Although researchers did not know if this is a cause or effect, the study pointed out that it is the diversity of the gut microbiota that remains the same in their study. They concluded that “this demonstrates that maintaining diversity of your gut as you age is a biomarker of healthy aging, just like the low-cholesterol is a biomarker of a healthy circulatory system,  ……suggest that resetting an elderly microbiota to that of a 30-year-old might help promote health.

Intermittent fasting can help fight obesity.

Wednesday, October 25th, 2017

 

Intermittent fast for up to sixteen weeks without making other changes helps fight obesity and other metabolic disorders .  according to a new study published in in the journal Cell Research  Researchers found that intermittent fasting of mice kick started their metabolism and burning fat by generating heat. Groups of mice were exposed to sixteen weeks of intermittent fasting consisting of being fed for two days followed by one day without anything to eat. Their calorie intake was not adjusted otherwise. After four months the mice in the fasting group had lost more weight than those in the control group who continued to eat the same amount of calories. Weight loss in the fasting group was not the only change. There was a decrease in the build up of white fat by increasing the brown-like fat (involved in burning energy and producing body heat) and their insulin and glucose systems remained more stable. In addition,m these changes were seen after 6 weeks.  This was found to be a result of changes in pathways in the immune system and the bodies reaction to inflammation in which a type of white blood cells that play a role in fighting inflammation is triggered. This leads to stimulation of fat cells to burn stored fat or lipids by generating heat. The authors concluded that “intermittent fasting without a reduction of caloric intake can be a preventive and therapeutic approach against obesity and metabolic diseases.”.

Increased Breast Cancer risk in Women Related to Night Lights

Wednesday, August 23rd, 2017

 

A new study published in Environmental Health Perspectives concluded that women who live in areas with higher levels of outdoor lights at night may be at a greater risk of breast cancer than women in areas of lower light,  The link was stronger among women who worked nights  Previous studies have found that exposure to light at night may lead to decreased levels of the hormone melatonin that can effect our circadian rhythms and lead to breast cancer.

In the study nearly 110,000 women enrolled in the Nurses Health Study II between 1989 and 2013 were evaluated. Data on night satellite images of earth residential addresses were linked to for each participant and also considered night work or not. Data on health and socioeconomic factors were also considered.  Women exposed to the upper level of light at night (the top fifth) had an estimated 14% increase in breast cancer during the study period than those in the lowest fifth.  As the light increased outside so did the risk of breast cancer.

This relationship was found only among women who were premenopausal and those who were current or past smokers. In addition, the link was stronger among women who worked nights. The researchers said further research is needed.

 

New Cervical Cancer Diagnostic Test has Minimal Discomfort.

Wednesday, August 9th, 2017

 

A new diagnostic test for cervical cancer that could replace the colposcope (usually used following an abnormal pap smear) is less painful and minimizes discomfort according to new research published in Journal of Lower Genital Tract Disease .In the colposcope a metal instrument is used  to obtain a small sampling of cells inside the cervix that is often painful for the patient and does not always provide good results.

An alternate device called the fabric -based endocervical curettage used a fabric hook similar to that found on the rough side of Velcro to do the sampling instead of the metal scraping. The hook simultaneously biopsies, traps, and stores the tissue for transport to the lab. Researchers said “We have found that the new fabric device has significantly fewer  “inadequate” specimens—meaning patients did not need to return for repeat biopsies. ” “This new device means patients will get better results, with fewer patients needing repeat biopsies, which can increase patient satisfaction.”

A sample of 81 physicians and nurse colposcopists who switched from the old metal version (January, 2010 to July 2011)  to the new fabric version (Sept 2011 to October, 2013) were included. The researchers looked at pathology lab results for the two periods. They found the new device is not sharp and removes the appropriate amount of cells with minimal discomfort. “Because the biopsy gets more tissue, it is able to find more precancerous cells. This could be the difference between intervening early before someone develops cancer and waiting until it has grown larger.”

Green Tea may Improve Memory Impairment, and Reduce Brain Insulin Resistance, and Obesity.

Wednesday, August 2nd, 2017

Green tea components may alleviate high-fat and high-fructose (HFFD)-induced insulin resistance and cognitive impairment.according to a new study published in The FASEB Journal. Previous studies identified the potential of EGCG (epigallocatechin-3-gallate) to treat a variety of human diseases but none recognized the impact on insulin resistance According to researchers “Green tea is the second most consumed beverage in the world after water, and is grown in at least 30 countries.” “The ancient habit of drinking green tea may be a more acceptable alternative to medicine when it comes to combating obesity, insulin resistance, and memory impairment.”

Three month old male mice  C57BL/6J were divided into 3 groups based upon diet:1) a control group fed with a standard diet: 2) a group fed with a  high fat and high fructose diet (HFFD) and 3) a group fed with an HFFD and 2 grams of EGCG per liter of drinking water.  Mice were monitored for 16 weeks and researchers found that those fed with HFFD had a higher final body weight than the HFFD+EGCG micIn performing a Morris water maze test, the mice in the HFFTD took longer to find the platform than the mice in the control group. The HFFD+EGCG group had a significantly lower  escape latency and escape distance than the HFFD group on each test day. When the hiden platform was removed to perform a probe trial, HFFD treated mice spent less time in the target quadrant compared to the control group, with fewer platfrorm crossings. The HFFD+EGCG group exhibited a significant increase in the average time spent in the target quadrant and had greater numbers of platform crossings, showing that EGCG could improve HFFD-induced memory impairment. .