Posts Tagged ‘marijuana’

Low dose THC relieves stress, but more has opposite effect.

Wednesday, June 7th, 2017

Research published in the journal Drug and Alcohol Dependence concluded that low levels of Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) , the main psychoactive compound in Marijuana does reduce stress, but in a highly dose-dependent manner. They found very low doses lessened the anxiety of a public speaking task but slightly higher doses actually increased anxiety. Researchers said “We found that THC at low doses reduce stress, while higher doses had the opposite effect, underscoring the importance of dose when it comes to THC and its effect.”  They pointed out that few studies previously looked at the effects of THC on stress and the differences related to dose because of the difficulty of obtaining samples and the regulation of the category 1 substance.

Healthy volunteers age 18 to 40 who had some experience with cannabis use but not daily users  were recruited for the study. They were randomly divided into 3 groups: 1) the low dose group received one capsule of 7.5 mg THC daily: 2) the moderate group received a capsule of 12.5 mg daily: and 3) the placebo group received a capsule containing none. Neither researchers or group members knew who was receiving what dose. Researchers said: The doses used in the study produce effects that are equivalent to only a few puffs of a cannabis cigarette.” Researchers further said it is difficult to compare doses of smoked cannabis to doses of engested THC. “We didn’t want to include larger doses because we wanted to avoid potential adverse effects or cardiovascular effects that can result from higher doses of THC.”

Subjects attended  two four hour sessions with researchers five days apart. At each session they took their capsules  and then relaxed for two hours to allow the RHC to be absorbed. During one session subjects were asked ro spend 10 minutes preparing for a mock job interview. This was followed by a 5 minute interview with a lab assistant who did not offer feedback. They were then asked to count backwards from a five digit number by subtracting 13 for 5 minutes. According to the researcher this task is very stress producing.

In their second visit subjects were asked to talk with lab assistants about a favorite book or movie for five minutes and then play solitaire for five minutes.  Before, during and after each activity subjects were asked to rate their stress levels and feelings about the tasks. In addition, blood pressure, heart rate, and cortisol levels  (a key stress hormone) were measured. Those who received 7.5mg of THC reported less stress after the psycho-social test than those given a placebo and their stress levels dissipated faster after the test.  Subjects who received 12.5 mg of THC reported greater negative mood before and throughout the task, and were more likely to rate the psychosocial task as challenging and threatening beforehand and had more pauses during the mock interview compared to those in the placebo group. Researchers concluded “Our findings provide some support for the common claim that cannabis is used to reduce stress and relieve tension and anxiety.” “At the same time, our findings our finding that participants in the higher THC group reported smaller but significant increases in anxiety and negative mood   throughout the test  supports the idea that  THC can also produce the opposite effect.?

Cannabis/Chris Conrad & Constance Finley

Sunday, May 14th, 2017

C Conrad

Chris Conrad (born March 10, 1953) is an American author, activist, curator, publisher and court-recognized expert in cannabis cultivation and use. He has played a key role in the shaping of the modern industrial and medical cannabis reform movements as the author of such seminal books as Hemp: Lifeline to the Future (1993) and Hemp for Health (1997), as well as through his activist work as the co-founder and first President of the Hemp Industries Association (HIA), founder of the Business Alliance in Commerce and Hemp (BACH), and the signature gathering coordinator for the Proposition 215 volunteer effort which made California the first US state to legalize the medical use of cannabis.[1] The December, 1999 issue of High Times ranked Conrad #10 on its list of top 25 “living legends in the battle for legal cannabi

Conrad’s writing career began when he designed and edited a revised edition of the hemp prohibition classic The Emperor Wears No Clothes by Jack Herer in 1990. He followed this with the publication of Hemp: Lifeline to the Future (1993), which was subsequently translated into Italian, and Hemp for Health (1997),[6] which was subsequently translated into Spanish Portuguese, Czech and German. He is also the author of Cannabis Yields and Dosages (2004) and Nostradamus and the Attack on New York.

Conrad has co-authored two books with collaborators Virginia Resner and his wife Mikki Norris: Shattered Lives: Portraits From America’s Drug War   and Human Rights and the US Drug War.

In 2007, Conrad contributed a chapter on cannabis history to Pourquoi & Comment Cultiver Du Chanvre by Michka,[12] where his writing appeared alongside contributions from other notable authors such as Jorge Cervantes, Raphael Mechoulam and Stephen Jay Gould.

In 1989, Conrad and his wife Mikki Norris co-founded the American Hemp Council, with the purpose of educating the American public on the many uses of industrial hemp and the laws against the crop in the United States.

In 1996, in the final weeks of the campaign (after the money came in and he was hired to do so), Conrad became the signature-gathering coordinator for the volunteer effort to pass California’s Proposition 215, the initiative which would go on to make the state the first in the US to legalize the medical use of marijuana.[14] He was also a vocal supporter of California’s Proposition 19 in 2010, which came within four points of making California the first state to legalize all adult uses of cannabis.[

Conrad has also been active in the movement to legalize industrial hemp, serving as the first president of the Hemp Industries Association (HIA) and founding the Business Alliance of Commerce in Hemp (BACH).

Since 2007, Conrad has taught at Oaksterdam University’s Oakland, California campus, where he teaches the history and politics of cannabis.

In 1993 and 2000, Conrad curated and designed the Hash-Marijuana-Hemp Museum in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. In 1995, Conrad and his wife Mikki Norris partnered with Virginia Resner to create and curate the “Human Rights ’95: Atrocities of the Drug War” photo exhibit to put a human face on non-violent prisoners of the Drug War and to show how the Drug War operates through their stories. Launched at the Fort Mason Center in San Francisco on June 24, 1995 for the 50th Anniversary the United Nations, the exhibit was put in context of the UN’s Declaration on Human Rights. The grand opening presented a program called, “Give Drug Peace a Chance,” that included Ram Dass, Paul Krassner, Jello Biafra, Ngaio Bealum, New Riders of the Purple Sage, and Terence Hallinan. They toured with this exhibit for many years, creating smaller excerpted displays that were shown at libraries, universities, conferences, and events under the name “Human Rights and the Drug War.” From 2011 to the present, Conrad has curated the Oaksterdam Cannabis Museum in Oakland, California.In 2014, Conrad and his wife Mikki Norris were jointly awarded the Seattle Hempfest Outstanding Cannabis Activist Award in recognition of their writing and advocacy work.

In 2010, Conrad was the recipient of Oaksterdam University’s Lifetime Achievement Award.

In 2004, Conrad and Norris received the Outstanding Citizen Activism Award at the 2004 national NORML conference.

In 2001, Conrad and Norris received the Drug Policy Alliance’s Robert C. Randall Award for Achievement in the Field of Citizen Action, along with collaborator Virginia Resner, Randy Credico of the William Moses Kunstler Fund for Racial Justice and Nora Callahan of the November Coalition.

The above information was taken from Wikipedia where Chris is listed.

ConstanceFinley

Constance Finley, founder and CEO of Constance Therapeutics, was inspired by her own personal experience with a chronic illness. After nearly dying from the pharmaceuticals prescribed to help alleviate pain and inflammation caused by a rare autoimmune disease, Finley turned to medical cannabis for relief.

She quickly became fascinated with the science behind the medicinal benefits of cannabis. Studies have found that cannabinoids, like THC and CBD, are more effective when working in tandem with the entire phytochemical profile of the female cannabis flower versus working in isolation – what is known as “The Entourage Effect.” Based on her research, Finley became determined to make standardized, whole plant cannabis extracts that incorporate all the naturally occurring cannabinoids, terpenes and flavonoids in cannabis, and are safe for those with compromised immune systems.

Prior to Constance Therapeutics, Finley was founder and CEO of Housing Allies, Inc. She pioneered the use of tax credits to create high-quality, aesthetically delightful low-income housing for the working poor and ill, utilizing corporate investments motivated by financial tax benefits. Finley also worked as a clinical psychologist and taught psychology courses at Naropa University, Greeley Junior College and Lone Mountain College. She holds a Master of Arts in Clinical Psychology from the University of San Francisco, where she graduated first in her class, and a Bachelor of Arts in Eastern Studies and Psychology from Lone Mountain College, where she graduated summa cum laude.

Testing Edible Marijuana Driver Impairment

Wednesday, February 15th, 2017

Holistic-Health-Show-with-Dr-Carl-O-Helvie

Testing edible marijuana for driver impairment is the subject of new research published in AACC’s Clinical Chemistry. Although edible marijuana is becoming increasingly common there is little information on testing drivers following consumption.  This study evaluated the performance of roadside saliva tests  following consumption of edible tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Researchers observed that consumption of marijuana edibles have expanded along with legalized medical and recreational use and about 1/3 of all marijuana is now either eaten or ingested in drinks. Marijuana-associated  traffic accidents and fatalities have also increased in states where they have been legalized increasing in those states from 8.6% in 2007 to 12.6% in 20132014.

In the study researchers gave occasional and frequent marijuana smokers brownies laced with 50.6 mg of THC. Over the next 48 hours the researchers collected saliva and blood samples at several time points. Saliva samples were analyzed using the roadside screening devices , the Draeger Drug Test 5000 (DT5000) and Alere DDS2 (DDS2) that use a cutoff point of 5µg/L and 25µg/L respectively to determine someone who is positive or negative for marijuana use. These tests were then confirmed  using a standard laboratory method for marijuana testing–the liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to analyze both the saliva and blood samples at different .THC cut off points ranging from 0.2µ/L to 25µg/L.

By comparing the roadside and the LC-MS/MS results, researchers determined that confirmation cutoffs for THC of >1 µg/L    and 0.2 µg/L led to the greater number of true positives both through the initial and through confirmation testings. Thus, saliva testing devices can successfully detect THC after ingestion of edible marijuana. Researchers recommended confirming edible marijuana use with saliva tests instead of blood tests due to a lack of correlation between the blood and saliva testing  over time.

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Can Cannabinoids Remove Toxic Alzheimer’s Protein from Brain Cells?

Wednesday, July 6th, 2016

Malignant Melanoma

A new study published in Aging and Mechanisms of Disease concluded they have found preliminary evidence that tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and other compounds in marijuana can promote the cellular removal of amyloid beta, a toxic protein associated with Alxheimer’s disease. Researchers say that although these exploratory studies were conducted in neurons grown in the lab, they may offer insight into the role of inflammation in alzheimer’s disease and provide clues for therapy.

Although it has been known that amyloid beta accumulates within the nerve cells of aging brains before Alzheimer disease symptoms and plaque that are hallmark of the disease it was unknown how the amyloid beta and the plaques it forms were involved in the disease process. Researchers found that high levels of amyloid beta were associated with cellular inflammation and higher rates of neuron death. In their research they demonstrated that exposing the cells to THC reduced amyloid beta protein levels and eliminated the inflammatory response from the nerve cells that were caused by the protein and allowed the nerve cells to survive.

Brain cells have switches known as receptors that can be activated by endocannabinoids that are mader by the body and used for intercellular signaling in the brain. The psychoactive effects of marijuana are caused by THC that is similar in activity to endocannabinoids that can activate the same receptors. Physical activity causes production of endocannabinoids and exercise has been shown in some studies to slow the progression of Alzheimer’s. Researchers reemphasized that the studies were lab studies that would need to be validated with clinical trials.